Methods of Voting
Recall the time when you ever voted in school or college for electing monitors, presidents of student unions. That’s when you voted to elect someone for your better future. Do you know about the methods did the parties used to declare the final decision?
This article consists of information about different voting methods including rules and criteria used at the time of elections. My actual objective to writing this article is to educate all and sundry about various voting methods and highlighting their results.
For every individual, voting methods can be explained as a way of making a choice to make a decision. Most importantly, in this I would focus on the methods of voting.
Let’s start with the most used rules, methods and criterion.
1. The Plurality Rule: - Candidates are selected by the voters and then elections held. The candidate with most of the votes wins and similarly a party wining the number of seats forms the government. This method is widely used. It creates many problems too. With this method, Condorcet Loser can be elected.
2. The Hare Rule: - according to the Linear orders of the set, a candidate getting least votes gets eliminated and other candidate wins.
3. The Coombs Rule: - Linear ordering of candidates is done and the candidate marked last is eliminated and ultimately the candidate with highest votes will be the winner.
1. Negative Voting: - Voters decide to vote in the favor of one candidate and they vote against the other one. The candidate with positive votes in highest number is declared as a winner.
2. Approval Voting: - Subset of the candidates are selected by the voters and the candidate securing the highest number of votes is announced as the winner.
3. Cumulative Voting: - A fixed number of points are distributed among the candidates by the voters in any way they want. The candidate with most of the points is declared the winner.
4. Dodgson’s Method: - Includes swapping of candidates until the winner is found. Candidate with less number wins.
5. Black’s Procedure: - Linear ordering of all the candidates is submitted by each voter. That candidate will be the winner only if there is Condorcet winner. Else, Borda Count Winner will be announced as the winner.
1. Pragmatic Concerns.
2. Behavioral Considerations.
3. Information required from voters.
4. Axiomatic characterization results and voting paradoxes.
Voting methods are always monotonic that keeps changing the victorious.
Now, the question arises! Which method should be adopted by the societies out of all?
However, it is not yet clear. Each method is having its own significance with various advantages as well as disadvantages. It would rather take ages to find out that which method is best suitable for conducting elections. The striking results can be found in the work of Michael Regenwelter and his colleagues. To learn more about these methods, one can read work of Felsenthal and Machover, 1998.